According to our lesson this week, variables are expressed as numbers in order to analyze them statistically, but different types of numbers have different levels of measurement (Houser, 2018). In my project I’m focusing on the risk race/ethnicity has on hospitalization/death in patients with Covid-19. This level of measurement is nominal. Our lesson discusses that nominal variables are categorized data, classified, and not ordered (Houser, 2018). An implication for this statistical testing is that subjects cannot be compared (Houser, 2018).
A study conducted that investigates Covid-19 mortality affecting the Black population in the US. The study used 505,992 patients receiving care at Bronx Montefiore Health System (BMHS) between 1/1/18 and 1/1/20 to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and death in two time periods- pre-Covid time and Covid time period (Golestaneh et al., 2020). The study was conducted using a retrospective cohort study of patients that were outpatient at BMHS (Golestaneh et al., 2020). In a retrospective cohort study is a type of observation research in which the investigator looks back in time at archived or self-report data to examine whether the risk of the disease was different between exposed and non-exposed patients (El-Masri, 2014). The variable was race/ethnicity (Golestaneh et al., 2020). Race/ethnicity data was patient self-defined at time of initial registration at BMHS. Patients were able to register as Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Other (Golestaneh et al., 2020).
El-Masri, M. M. (2014, April 1). Terminology 101: Retrospective cohort study design. Retrieved September 28, 2020, from https://canadian-nurse.com/en/articles/issues/2014/april-2014/terminology-101-retrospective-cohort-study-design
Golestaneh, L., Neugarten, J., Fisher, M., Billett, H. H., Gil, M. R., Johns, T., . . . Bellin, E. (2020). The association of race and COVID-19 mortality. EClinicalMedicine, 25, 100455. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100455
Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.