Human Rights & International Relations: Political Science


1. Do you think that freedom of expression should ever be limited? Discuss in relation to wars and other emergencies. This essay should be (3,500)

2. How important an actor is the EU in world politics? (3500) words


      In answering both essay questions please use at least a minimum of 10 books each essay, use less websites please.


·        Total references on each essay should not be less than 14 references each.


·        The reference style is Harvard reference style please.


In regards to the first question (Do you think that freedom of expression should ever be limited? Discuss in relation to wars and other emergencies) Please feel free to use some of these references below.


Sources for Freedom of expression question only:


Bairett Jr., R.L. (2015) Executive Power and Media Freedom in Central and Eastern Europe. Comparative Political Studies 48(10) pp.1260-1292.

Simon, J. (2015) The New Censorship: Inside the Global Battle for Media Freedom. New York: Columbia University Press.


Media in war/ hybrid warfare

Buyse, A. (2014) Words of Violence: “Fear Speech,” or How Violent Conflict Escalation Relates to the Freedom of Expression. Human Rights Quarterly 36(4) pp.779-797.

Carruthers, S.L. (2000) The Media at War: Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. Basingstoke: McMillan.


Hamelink, C.J. (2008) Media between warmongers and peacemakers. Media, War and Conflict 1(1) pp.77-83.

Harrop, L. (2004) Propaganda’s War on Human Rights. Peace Review 16(3) pp.311-316.

Hills, J. (2006) What’s New? War, Censorship and Global Transmission: From the Telegraph to the Internet. The International Communication Gazette 68(3) pp.195-296.

Joseph, T. (2014) Mediating War and Peace: Mass Media and International Conflict. India Quarterly 70(3) pp.225-240.

Kent, G. (2006) Framing War and Genocide. Cresskill: Hampton Press.

Payne, K. (2005) The Media as an Instrument of War. Parameters 35(1) pp. 81-93.

Taylor, P. (2003) Journalism under fire: the reporting of war and international crises. In: Cottle, S. (ed.) News, Public Relations and Power. London: Sage. pp.63-79.

Tumber, H. & Webster, F. (2006) Journalists Under Fire: Information War and Journalistic Practices. London: Sage.


Ukraine/Russia propaganda

Himka, J.P. (2015) The History Behind the Regional Conflict in Ukraine. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 16(1) pp.129-136.

Pikulicka-Wilezewska, A. & Sakwa, R. (eds). Ukraine and Russia: People, Politics, Propaganda and Perspectives. Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing.

Mejias, U. & Vokuev, N. (2017) Disinformation and the media: the case of Russia and Ukraine. Media, Culture and Society 0(0) pp.1-16.

NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence (2015) Analysis of Russia’s Information Campaign Against Ukraine: Examining non-military aspects of the crisis in Ukraine from a strategic communications perspective. Riga: NATO Stratcom Centre for Excellence.

Pomerantsev, P. & Weiss, M. (2014) The Menace of Unreality: How the Kremlin Weaponizes Information, Culture and Money. New York: The Institute of Modern Russia.

Roman, N., Wanta, W. & Buniak, I. (2017) Information wars: Eastern Ukraine military conflict coverage in the Russian, Ukrainian and U.S newscasts. The International Communication Gazette 0(0) pp.1-22.

Hug, A. (ed.) The information battle: How governments in the former Soviet Union promote their agendas and attack their opponents abroad. London: The Foreign Policy Centre. pp.5-11.



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