Fluid Mechanics Project Assignment (Total 15%)
Report: to D2L Assignment Dropbox by 4pm, 5/01/2020 Friday
Problem: Steady flows pass a cylinder (see ‘Problem Specification’ in the Tutorial).
Requirements: Report should include Introduction, Theory (Potential Flow), Computational Model, Results, and Conclusions, Discussion and References. Use 1” margin on top, bottom, left, and right. Use Times New Roman 12 font and 1.5 line spacing. In Results session, present and compare the velocity field, streamlines, and drag forces on the cylinder from both the model and theoretical results. In Discussion, discuss why these results from two approaches are similar or different.
Tutorial 1. Flow over a Cylinder – Two Dimensional Case
Using ANSYS Workbench
The primary objective of this Tutorial is to guide the student using Fluent for first time through the very basics of CFD simulation using ANSYS Workbench.
The objective of this simulation is to determine the velocity and pressure fields produced when a fluid flows over a cylinder. In addition, the drag force exerted by the fluid over the cylinder is computed. Streamline plots are also available.
Summary: In this exercise, the flow over a cylinder is modeled. The flow is assumed to be two dimensional therefore the cylinder can be represented by a circle. A flow domain surrounding the cylinder is created and meshed. Boundary conditions are applied to the simulation to obtain plots of static pressure, velocity magnitude, and streamlines. The drag coefficient can be calculated using the forces exerted by the fluid on the cylinder as computed by the software.
1. Starting ANSYS Workbench • Click on the Start Menu, and then select Workbench 14.0. • Close Getting Started window. • Left click on the tab corresponding to FluidFlow (FLUENT) and without releasing the mouse button drag the icon to the Project Schematic window (central big window). • Click twice on the lower tab and rename the project to Cylinder1
• Now right click on the Geometry tab and select the properties option, a Properties of Schematic window will open. Change the Analysis Type under the Advanced Geometry Options from 3D to 2D. • Back to the Project Schematic Window, click twice on the Geometry tab. This action will launch ANSYS Design Modeler (green logo DM).
2. Create Geometry • Set units to centimeters (cm) and click ok. • Right click on icon corresponding to XYPlane and select look at. • Down below the Tree Outline window you will see the Sketching and Modeling tabs. Select the Sketching tab. • A Sketching Toolboxes window will replace the Tree Outline window with a new set of tabs, select the Settings tab. • Select Grid and activate the buttons Show in 2D and Snap. • Make sure that Major Grid Spacing is set to 5 cm, Minor–Steps per Major is 5, and Snaps per Minor is 1.
• Click on the icon corresponding to New Sketch to create sketch 1. Click again on the icon to create Sketch 2. Click on the Modeling tab and you will notice that you have created Sketch 1 and Sketch 2.
• Click on Sketch 1 and then click on the Sketching tab. • Select the Draw tab and choose circle . Draw a circle with center at the origin (at this point the size of the circle is not important, it will be adjusted in the next step), and then click on Generate. • Once the circle has been created select the tab corresponding to Dimensions and choose Radius. Left click on the circle you just drew and drag the mouse outwards without releasing the mouse button until you see an arrow indicating the radius of the circle, then release button. • On the new window that appears (Details View window) adjust the radius to 2 cm, and click on Generate. • Select now Sketch 2 and click on the Draw tab. Choose Rectangle. Then create a rectangle with vertices (-30, 20) and (50, – 20). Click on Generate to create this entity. • Now go to the Concept tab and select Surfaces From Sketches.
• Use the Ctrl key select Sketch 1 and Sketch 2. The rectangle and the circle must become yellow. Click on Apply on the Details View window. The circle and the rectangle will become cyan. • Now, click on Generate. You have created a circular and a rectangular surface.
• The next step consists in subtracting the circle from the rectangle so we create the geometry that we will use to generate our mesh. Click on the Create tab and select Boolean. • In the Details window, select the Operation tab and choose Subtract. Click on the Target Bodies tab. Going back up to the Tree Outline window, under 2 Parts, 2 Bodies. Select the Surface Body tab that highlights in yellow the rectangle. Then click Apply. The rectangle will become cyan. • Now click on Tool Bodies, select the Surface Body tab that highlights in yellow the circle and click Apply. The circle will become cyan. Make sure that the tab corresponding to Preserve Tool Bodies? Is set No. • Click on Generate. Our geometry is almost ready to be meshed. But before that we need to specify the entities of our geometry, that is, the inlet, the outlet, the walls and the cylinder.
• On the upper tools bar, select the icon corresponding to Selection Filter: Edges.
• Place the mouse near the left end of the rectangle and left click to highlight it (green). Once it is green right click to select Named Selection. Then click on Apply, and finally on Generate. Right click on the new entity created, NamedSel1, and choose Rename. Type Inlet and hit enter. • Follow same procedure for the right end of the rectangle to define the outlet. Place the mouse near the right end of the rectangle; left click to highlight it (green). Then right click to select Named Selection. Then click on Apply, and finally on Generate. Right click on the new entity created, NamedSel2, and choose Rename. Type Outlet and hit enter. • Finally we follow the same procedure to create the cylinder. Always using the Selection Filter: Edges tool, left click on the circle to highlight it on green, then right click to choose Named Selection, click on Apply, click on Generate and rename it to be Cylinder. • Click on the Save Project icon to save your work.
• The layout out of our DM should look like this:
• Close DM and go back to the Workbench.
3. Mesh Generation • On your Ansys Workbench, double click on the tab corresponding to mesh. • Select Mesh from the outline window. • In the Details of Mesh window, click the plus sign next to Sizing to expand it. • Change Relevance Center to Fine. • Click on Update. • Close the window. • Save your work on the Workbench
4. Setting up Physics and Solution of the Problem using Fluent • Double click on the Setup tab, and then click OK on the Fluent Launcher window. • Once Fluent opens you will see the mesh you just created displayed on the central window. • On the left side you will see a menu showing three main sections: Problem Setup, Solution, and Results. Let’s start by setting up our problem. • Activate the gravity effects by checking the button next to Gravity. Set Gravitational Acceleration equal to -9.81 on the section corresponding to Y–direction. • Select the tab corresponding to Units… under Quantities select Length and set it to cm. Then click Close. • Next, click on Models and make sure that the everything on the Models window is off except the third option corresponding to viscous, this must be Viscous–Laminar. • Next, click on Materials, highlighting the option corresponding to Fluid, click on Create/Edit. Select Fluent Data Base on the window that opened. Select Water–Liquid (h2o<l>). Click on Copy, and then Close. Also close the Create/ Edit Materials window.
• Now click on the Cell Zone Conditions tab and click on the Edit… button. Change the Material Name from air to water–liquid. Click OK. • Now we input the boundary conditions. Select Inlet and click on Edit. Set the Magnitude of the Velocity (m/s) to 0.0003. Clock OK. • On the outlet make sure that the Type is set to pressure-outlet. Clock on Edit… and make sure that the Gauge Pressure (pascal) is 0. Click OK. • Make sure that cylinder and wall-surface_body are defined as Type wall. • Under Solution, select Solution Initialization and click on Initialize. • Go to Run Calculation, set Number of Iterations to 1000, Reporting Interval to 10 and click on Calculate. • Once the solution has converged we proceed to review the results. Under the Results section click on Graphics and Animations. • On the window that gets activated select Contours and Set Up. • A new window will open, select the option Filled, and select Contours of Velocity with the option Velocity Magnitude. Then click on Display.
• Now still under the Graphics option select Vectors, then click on Display. • A number of parameters are available through the contour plots, in our case, pressure is also a relevant parameter. • Finally we can determine the drag exerted by the fluid on the cylinder using the Reports section under Results. Click on Reports, select Forces and press the Set Up … button. Select only the Wall Zone corresponding to Cylinder by highlighting it. Click on Print. A print out with all the forces acting on the cylinder will be shown in the command window.