Economics homework help

 Discussion Topic #2: How can communications, information management, and technologies bolster an emergency management system?
Required Reading
Canton, L. G. (2007). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1. National Incident Management System (NIMS) chapters 2 & 5.
  • The National Incident Management System
    National Incident Management System
    “…a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.” -HSPD-5
    *

    • Will have profound impact on the way we prepare for and respond to domestic incidents and disasters.
    • Nationwide, standardized approach to incident management and response.
    • Establishes a standard, consistent framework for federal, state, tribal and local governments to work together to respond to incidents, emergencies – no matter the cause or complexity.
    • Developed by Homeland Security at the request of the President – Homeland Security Presidential Directive—5.
    • Not only about response – also about preparedness, prevention, recovery and mitigation.
    • Built on the foundation of existing systems. Integrates best practices developed over the years.
    • Developed through collaborative process involving functional disciplines in emergency and incident management.
    • Represents a core set of doctrines, concepts, principles, terminologies and processes.
    • Not an operational plan or resource management plan. Not a plan specifically for terrorism or WMD.
    • HSPD-5 requires that federal departments & agencies adopt the NIMS and use to support state, local, tribal entities.
    • It also stipulates that federal departments & agencies require state and local entities to adopt the NIMS as a condition for federal preparedness assistance after a phase-in period.
    *
    NIMS: What It Is / What It’s Not
    NIMS is…

    • Core set of:
    • Doctrine
    • Concepts
    • Principles
    • Terminology
    • Organizational processes
    • Applicable to all hazards

     
    NIMS is not…

    • An operational incident management plan
    • A resource allocation plan
    • A terrorism / WMD-specific plan
    • Designed to address international events
    *
    NIMS

    • NIMS provides overall conceptual framework for incident management.

     
    NRP

    • NRP an operational plan spelling out how efforts and resources of participants are integrated into a cohesive response operation.
    • Forms the basis of how the federal government interfaces with state, local, tribal governments and the private sector.
    • Includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations and preparedness guidelines.
    • Details missions, policies, structures, responsibilities of federal agencies responding to Incidents of National Significance.
    • Outlines functions of each Emergency Response Function coordinators, primary agencies and support agencies.
    *
     
    National Incident Management System
    (NIMS)
     
    Relationship: NIMS and NRP
    Local
    Response
    State
    Response or Support
    Federal
    Response or Support
    NIMS aligns command, control, organization structure, terminology, communication protocols, resources and resource-typing for synchronization of response efforts at all echelons of government.
    National Response Plan (NRP)
    Incident
    Activated for
    incidents of national significance.
    Resources, knowledge,
    and abilities from
    Federal departments & agencies.
    DHS integrates
    and applies Federal
    resources both pre and
    post incident.
    Used for all events
    *
     
    National Incident Management System
    Command and Management
     

    • Incident Command System
    • Multiagency Coordination System
    • Public Information System

    Components of NIMS …

    *
    ICS and NIMS …

    • NIMS establishes ICS as the standardized incident organizational structure for responding to all incidents.
    • NIMS requires that states and locals institutionalize “ICS as taught by DHS” across entire response system.
    • This means that ICS training must be consistent with concepts, principles, characteristics of DHS ICS training.
    • Does not mean that ICS training must be provided by a DHS employee or DHS training facility.
    • NIMS ICS training developed by FEMA/EMI is available:
    • ICS-100, Introduction
    • ICS-200, Basic
    • ICS-300, Intermediate
    • ICS-400, Advanced
    • NIMS ICS is based on FIRESCOPE and NIIMS – training developed or provided by FIRESCOPE or NIIMS is consistent with DHS NIMS ICS.
    • As critical components of NIMS ICS are modified by the NIC over time, training providers will need to update accordingly.
    • ICS training should encourage and support integrated training opportunities where law enforcement, fire, public health emergency medical, public works, emergency management train together.

    MACS

    • A multiagency coordination system involves the integration of personnel, procedures, equipment and facilities into a common system that manages the incident.
    • Response activities are typically coordinated at an Emergency Operations Center, while the Incident Command Post is located at the site of the incident.

    Public Information Systems

    • Public Information Systems involve the systems and protocols for communicating information to the public during a crisis or emergency situation.
    National Incident Management System
    Preparedness
     
    Planning
    Training and Exercises
    Standards and Certification
    Mutual Aid
    Information and Publications
    Components of NIMS …
    *
    Preparedness involves a continuous cycle of planning, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating and taking action to correct and mitigate.
     
    Involves guidelines, protocols, standards for planning, training, [personnel qualification and certification, equipment certification and publications…
     

      • Linked to HSPD-8
      • Processes for providing guidelines; protocols; standards for planning, training, qualifications and certification; and publication management
      • Mitigation activities are important elements of preparedness

     

    • “National-level preparedness standards related to the NIMS will be maintained and managed through a multijurisdictional, multidiscipline center, using a collaborative process.”
    National Incident Management System
    Resource Management
     

    • Identify and type resources
    • Certify and credential personnel
    • Inventory, acquire, mobilize, track and

    recover
    Components of NIMS …
     

    *
    Concept and Principles
     

      • NIMS resource management involves typing resources; credentialing personnel; identifying resource requirements; and acquiring, tracking and recovering resources
      • Effective resource management utilizes mutual aid
      • Provides a uniform way to identify and track resources
      • Requires standardized classification of the kinds and types of resources needed in incident management
      • Credentialing system tied to training and standards
      • Coordinated by EOC or Multiagency Coordination System or through ICS structure

     

    National Incident Management System

    • Communications and Information Management
    • Supporting Technologies
    • Ongoing NIMS Management

    Components of NIMS …

    *
    Communications and Information Management
     

    • NIMS requires a common operating picture that is accessible across jurisdictions and agencies.
    • A common operating picture will help ensure consistency at all levels and among those who respond to or manage incident response.
    • Common communications and data standards are fundamental. Effective communications within and outside the response structure are enhanced by adherence to standards.

     
    Supporting Technologies
     
    NIMS supporting technology standards are based on:
    Interoperability and compatibility
    Technology support
    Broad-based requirements
    Strategic planning and R&D
     
    The NIMS Integration Center will provide ongoing NIMS management.

    The NIMS Integration Center
    Mission …
    “To provide strategic direction for and oversight of the NIMS, supporting … routine maintenance and the continuous refinement of the system and its components over the long term.”
    HSPD-5
    *
    The NIMS Integration Center is a multi-jurisdictional, multidisciplinary entity.
     
    It will oversee all aspects of the NIMS, including the development of NIMS-related standards and guidelines and the provision of guidance and support to incident management and responder organizations as they implement the system.
     
    The Center also will validate compliance with the NIMS responsibilities, standards and requirements.
     
    The Center is organized around the following:

    • Standards and Resources
    • Training and Exercises
    • System Evaluation and Compliance
    • Technology, Research and Development
    • Publications Management

     

    NIMS Integration Center Initiatives – Resource Typing
     

      • National Mutual Aid Glossary of Terms and Definitions

     

      • Resource Typing Definitions – II

     

    *

    • Enhanced resource management tools designed to help incident managers identify, obtain and track needed resources during an incident or disaster.
    • National Mutual Aid Glossary of Terms and Definitions provides terms for equipment, teams and personnel used in disasters, and
    • Resource Typing Definitions – II, categorizes equipment and teams by functional grouping and then ‘types’ or organizes them according to capability and/or capacity.
    • Resource management is a key component of the new National Incident Management System.
    • Federal, state and local officials should use the 120 typed definitions as they develop or update their inventories of response assets.
    • Will help ensure that equipment and personnel deployed through NIMS are compatible with those of jurisdictions that work together through mutual aid agreement.
    • The glossary and resource typing definitions may be downloaded from the FEMA.GOV Web site at www.fema.gov/nims/.
    • The resource definitions were developed by federal, state, and local experts from the following disciplines: Animal Health, Emergency Management, Emergency Medical Fire/Hazardous Materials, Emergency Medical Services, Health and Medical, Law Enforcement, Public Works, and Search and Rescue.
    • Also … FEMA developed a model Intrastate mutual aid agreement for use by states and local jurisdictions – www.emacweb.org
    NIMS Integration Center Initiatives – Credentialing
    NIMS calls for a nationwide system for credentialing personnel and equipment …
    *
    A documentation and database system for qualification, certification and credentialing of incident management personnel and organizations.
    Specify and standardize roles and responsibilities of first responders operating in emergencies.
    Ensure that personnel responding to an incident are properly trained and qualified.
    Provides uniform certification programs so responders can provide mutual aid assistance nationwide.
    Work with existing entities to establish national recognition for multi-jurisdictional response under mutual aid agreements.
    The NIMS Integration Center Resources – System Evaluation
     
     
     
    NIMS
    Capability Assessment Support Tool
    *

    • A Web-based self-assessment system that state and local governments can use to evaluate their incident response and management capabilities and comply with NIMS requirements.
    • A field test of the the NIMCAST system will be conducted with states.
    • Based on field test results, the instrument will be available for voluntary use nationwide.

     

    National Incident Management System
     
    FY 2005 Compliance: States
    Letter from Secretary Ridge to Governors, Sept. 8, 2004

    • Incident Command System
    • NIMS into Emergency Operations Plans
    • NIMS into training, exercises
    • Intrastate mutual aid agreements
    • Technical assistance
    *

    • Institutionalize use of Incident Command System
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into Emergency Operations Plans
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into existing training programs and exercises
    • Promote intrastate mutual aid agreements
    • Coordinate, provide technical assistance to local entities
    • Use federal preparedness funding supports implementation at state and local levels (Homeland Security Grant Program, Urban Area Security Initiative funds)

     

    National Incident Management System
     
    FY 2005 Compliance: State, Local, Tribal
    Letter from Secretary Ridge to Governors, Sept. 8, 2004

    • Complete EMI Course – NIMS, An Introduction
    • Formally recognize NIMS
    • Establish NIMS baseline
    • Establish strategy for implementing NIMS
    • Institutionalize use of ICS
    *

    • Institutionalize use of Incident Command System
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into Emergency Operations Plans
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into existing training programs and exercises
    • Promote intrastate mutual aid agreements
    • Coordinate, provide technical assistance to local entities regarding NIMS
    • Use federal preparedness funding to support NIMS implementation at state and local levels (DHS Homeland Security Grant Program, Urban Area Security Initiative funds)

     
    FY 2006: Certify completion of FY 2005 requirements in grant application.
     
    FY 2007: Full Compliance Required

    The NIMS Integration Center

    • Gil Jamieson, Acting Director

     

     

     

     

    • Main Number: 202-646-3850
    • Mailing Address: NIMS Integration Center, 500 C Street SW, Suite 707, Washington, DC 20472
    *

    • Will have profound impact on the way we prepare for and respond to domestic incidents and disasters.
    • Nationwide, standardized approach to incident management and response.
    • Establishes a standard, consistent framework for federal, state, tribal and local governments to work together to respond to incidents, emergencies – no matter the cause or complexity.
    • Developed by Homeland Security at the request of the President – Homeland Security Presidential Directive—5.
    • Not only about response – also about preparedness, prevention, recovery and mitigation.
    • Built on the foundation of existing systems. Integrates best practices developed over the years.
    • Developed through collaborative process involving functional disciplines in emergency and incident management.
    • Represents a core set of doctrines, concepts, principles, terminologies and processes.
    • Not an operational plan or resource management plan. Not a plan specifically for terrorism or WMD.
    • HSPD-5 requires that federal departments & agencies adopt the NIMS and use to support state, local, tribal entities.
    • It also stipulates that federal departments & agencies require state and local entities to adopt the NIMS as a condition for federal preparedness assistance after a phase-in period.

    *
    NIMS

    • NIMS provides overall conceptual framework for incident management.

     
    NRP

    • NRP an operational plan spelling out how efforts and resources of participants are integrated into a cohesive response operation.
    • Forms the basis of how the federal government interfaces with state, local, tribal governments and the private sector.
    • Includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations and preparedness guidelines.
    • Details missions, policies, structures, responsibilities of federal agencies responding to Incidents of National Significance.
    • Outlines functions of each Emergency Response Function coordinators, primary agencies and support agencies.

    *
     
    *
    ICS and NIMS …

    • NIMS establishes ICS as the standardized incident organizational structure for responding to all incidents.
    • NIMS requires that states and locals institutionalize “ICS as taught by DHS” across entire response system.
    • This means that ICS training must be consistent with concepts, principles, characteristics of DHS ICS training.
    • Does not mean that ICS training must be provided by a DHS employee or DHS training facility.
    • NIMS ICS training developed by FEMA/EMI is available:
    • ICS-100, Introduction
    • ICS-200, Basic
    • ICS-300, Intermediate
    • ICS-400, Advanced
    • NIMS ICS is based on FIRESCOPE and NIIMS – training developed or provided by FIRESCOPE or NIIMS is consistent with DHS NIMS ICS.
    • As critical components of NIMS ICS are modified by the NIC over time, training providers will need to update accordingly.
    • ICS training should encourage and support integrated training opportunities where law enforcement, fire, public health emergency medical, public works, emergency management train together.

    MACS

    • A multiagency coordination system involves the integration of personnel, procedures, equipment and facilities into a common system that manages the incident.
    • Response activities are typically coordinated at an Emergency Operations Center, while the Incident Command Post is located at the site of the incident.

    Public Information Systems

    • Public Information Systems involve the systems and protocols for communicating information to the public during a crisis or emergency situation.

    *
    Preparedness involves a continuous cycle of planning, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating and taking action to correct and mitigate.
     
    Involves guidelines, protocols, standards for planning, training, [personnel qualification and certification, equipment certification and publications…
     

      • Linked to HSPD-8
      • Processes for providing guidelines; protocols; standards for planning, training, qualifications and certification; and publication management
      • Mitigation activities are important elements of preparedness

     

    • “National-level preparedness standards related to the NIMS will be maintained and managed through a multijurisdictional, multidiscipline center, using a collaborative process.”

    *
    Concept and Principles
     

      • NIMS resource management involves typing resources; credentialing personnel; identifying resource requirements; and acquiring, tracking and recovering resources
      • Effective resource management utilizes mutual aid
      • Provides a uniform way to identify and track resources
      • Requires standardized classification of the kinds and types of resources needed in incident management
      • Credentialing system tied to training and standards
      • Coordinated by EOC or Multiagency Coordination System or through ICS structure

     
    *
    Communications and Information Management
     

    • NIMS requires a common operating picture that is accessible across jurisdictions and agencies.
    • A common operating picture will help ensure consistency at all levels and among those who respond to or manage incident response.
    • Common communications and data standards are fundamental. Effective communications within and outside the response structure are enhanced by adherence to standards.

     
    Supporting Technologies
     
    NIMS supporting technology standards are based on:
    Interoperability and compatibility
    Technology support
    Broad-based requirements
    Strategic planning and R&D
     
    The NIMS Integration Center will provide ongoing NIMS management.
    *
    The NIMS Integration Center is a multi-jurisdictional, multidisciplinary entity.
     
    It will oversee all aspects of the NIMS, including the development of NIMS-related standards and guidelines and the provision of guidance and support to incident management and responder organizations as they implement the system.
     
    The Center also will validate compliance with the NIMS responsibilities, standards and requirements.
     
    The Center is organized around the following:

    • Standards and Resources
    • Training and Exercises
    • System Evaluation and Compliance
    • Technology, Research and Development
    • Publications Management

     
    *

    • Enhanced resource management tools designed to help incident managers identify, obtain and track needed resources during an incident or disaster.
    • National Mutual Aid Glossary of Terms and Definitions provides terms for equipment, teams and personnel used in disasters, and
    • Resource Typing Definitions – II, categorizes equipment and teams by functional grouping and then ‘types’ or organizes them according to capability and/or capacity.
    • Resource management is a key component of the new National Incident Management System.
    • Federal, state and local officials should use the 120 typed definitions as they develop or update their inventories of response assets.
    • Will help ensure that equipment and personnel deployed through NIMS are compatible with those of jurisdictions that work together through mutual aid agreement.
    • The glossary and resource typing definitions may be downloaded from the FEMA.GOV Web site at www.fema.gov/nims/.
    • The resource definitions were developed by federal, state, and local experts from the following disciplines: Animal Health, Emergency Management, Emergency Medical Fire/Hazardous Materials, Emergency Medical Services, Health and Medical, Law Enforcement, Public Works, and Search and Rescue.
    • Also … FEMA developed a model Intrastate mutual aid agreement for use by states and local jurisdictions – www.emacweb.org

    *
    A documentation and database system for qualification, certification and credentialing of incident management personnel and organizations.
    Specify and standardize roles and responsibilities of first responders operating in emergencies.
    Ensure that personnel responding to an incident are properly trained and qualified.
    Provides uniform certification programs so responders can provide mutual aid assistance nationwide.
    Work with existing entities to establish national recognition for multi-jurisdictional response under mutual aid agreements.
    *

    • A Web-based self-assessment system that state and local governments can use to evaluate their incident response and management capabilities and comply with NIMS requirements.
    • A field test of the the NIMCAST system will be conducted with states.
    • Based on field test results, the instrument will be available for voluntary use nationwide.

     
    *

    • Institutionalize use of Incident Command System
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into Emergency Operations Plans
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into existing training programs and exercises
    • Promote intrastate mutual aid agreements
    • Coordinate, provide technical assistance to local entities
    • Use federal preparedness funding supports implementation at state and local levels (Homeland Security Grant Program, Urban Area Security Initiative funds)

     
    *

    • Institutionalize use of Incident Command System
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into Emergency Operations Plans
    • Incorporate NIMS concepts into existing training programs and exercises
    • Promote intrastate mutual aid agreements
    • Coordinate, provide technical assistance to local entities regarding NIMS
    • Use federal preparedness funding to support NIMS implementation at state and local levels (DHS Homeland Security Grant Program, Urban Area Security Initiative funds)

     
    FY 2006: Certify completion of FY 2005 requirements in grant application.
     
    FY 2007: Full Compliance Required

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