3-3½ pages, 1” margins, double-spaced, 10-12 pt font. Please do not add a cover sheet. Simply include name, course number, and Essay 1 at the top of the page (either centered or adjusted left).
Also, no secondary sources are required. You need only refer to the class reading from the book The American Indian Intellectual Tradition which is given to you from the google drive link. However, whenever you cite or quote from the textbook, The American Indian Intellectual Tradition, please put the appropriate page number in parentheses at the end of your citation or quotation (0).
Class reading from the textbook, The American Indian Intellectual Tradition.
Making references to the authors read, so far, in The American Indian Intellectual Tradition, namely from Part I Boudinot, Ross, Copway, Parker, and Part II La Flesche, Johnson, and Winnemucca, Kellogg, Coolidge, Wheelock, Roe Cloud, Parker, Montezuma, Eastman, and Zitkala-Sa, answer the following questions:
1. In the writings by Boudinot (1826) and Copway (1848) readers are presented with two vastly different perspectives on Indian Removal, which saw the forced relocation of large numbers of Indigenous people from their ancestral homelands east of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). With regard to Boudinot’s essay, how did he portray Cherokee Nation “civilization,” such that he thought he could convince his white American audience to support Cherokee Nation’s effort to remain on their Georgia homeland? In turn, how does Copway try to use the idea of an “Indian territory” to the advantage of the tribes that were still on separate reservations across the northern Plains and western Great Lakes?
2. In the writings of La Flesche (1880), Winnemucca (1883), and Kellogg (1912, 1920) readers are introduced to the important phenomenon of Indigenous women intellectuals, all of whom contributed significantly to the discourse on Indian affairs. How did La Flesche and Winnemucca portray the reservation system, such that they both condemned the Indian Bureau’s treatment of Indians? In turn, how does Kellogg attempt to redeem the reservation by making it a focus of her ideas for Indigenous nation-building?
3. One opinion that all American Indian intellectuals of the Progressive Era agreed upon was that the federal government, above all the Indian Bureau, has failed the American Indian population. Yet, these same intellectuals were not short of ideas about how to address the situation. Why did Montezuma argue that the Indian Bureau needed to be abolished, not reformed, but eliminated altogether? In the case of Eastman, in reference to “Model Indian Communities” and “Indians As Politicians,” how did he argue that American Indians were more than capable of thriving in modern American society?
[Please do not use the questions as section breaks. You may number your answers, but please do not insert the entire question into the essay. Thank you!]